Pronouns

 

Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. They substitute for nouns to make speech and writing less cumbersome by using a single word (the pronoun) to represent much longer passages and ideas.

Frank thought aout uying a new car, but then he changed her mind.

There are several types of pronouns: personal, demonstrative, reflexive, intensive, interrogative, relative, and indefinite. Note that some authorities may classify possessive adjectives, demonstrative pronouns, relative pronouns, indefinite pronouns (or quantifiers) as determiners and not pronouns.

Personal Pronouns

There are three classes of personal pronouns- subjective, objective, and possessive.

   Subjective pronouns are those that are the subjects of a sentence. The subjective pronouns are:

Singular           I           you      he        she      it
Plural               we       they     you

I work in LA.                                  They came to America in 1990.

Objective pronouns are those that are objects in a sentence. The objective pronouns are:

Singular           me       you      him      her      it
Plural               us        them   you

Please lend the money to me                 Why did dad give the paiting to her?

   Possessive pronouns are words that indicate ownership. The possessive nouns are:

Singular            mine    yours      his       hers       its
Plural               ours    theirs      yours

The CD’s on the table are mine.
Those children are ours.

Demonstrative Pronouns

The demonstrative pronouns are this, that, these, and those. The demonstrative pronouns point out
nouns, which by their very use indicate or demonstrate what is being talked about.

What is this?                  That is a tea kettle.
Do not move these?     Those are not yours.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns indicate that the subject receives the action of the verb. The reflexive pronouns are:

Singular           myself             himself           herself            yourself          itself
Plural               themselves    ourselves      yourselves

Larry accidently hit himself in the head.
The students shouldn’t have laughed at the teacher, but couldn’t stop themselves.

Intensive Pronouns

The intensive pronouns are the sam as the reflexive pronouns, but emphasize nouns or pronoun they refer too. The intensive pronouns immediately follow the noun they emphasize. If an intensive pronoun is omitted, the sentence will still make sense grammatically. The intensive pronouns are:

Singular           myself             yourself          himself           herself            itself
Plural               ourselves      yourselves     themselves

She can’t do it herself. (she emphasizes herself)
The doctors themselves understood the importance of the new health care law.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns introduce questions. The interrogative pronouns include:

which              what                who                 whom              whose
whoever         whatever       whichever

Which toaster should we buy?
Whose money is that?

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns are used to connect or relate a dependent clause to an independent
clause. Relative pronouns are found in adjective clauses or noun clauses. The relative pronouns are:

that                 which              what
who                 whose             whom

The tickets that I bought for the concert were expensive. (dependent clause underlined)
Mr. Johnson knows a local who has a yacht.

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns are noun substitutes that are not definite in meaning. The most common indefinite pronouns are listed below.

Anybody: no matter what person
XXXAnyone can audition for the play.

Anything: no matter what thing
XXXCan we do anything to help?

Everyone: all people
XXXEveryone should exit by the rear door.

Everything: all things
XXXEverything in the house was distroyed in the fire.

Somebody: an unspecified or unknown person
XXXSomebody should call 911.

Something: an unspecified or unknown thing
XXXSomething bit we when I was swimming in the sea..

Nothing: no single thing, not anything
XXXNothing can be sone about it.

Each: every one of two or more people or things, seen separately
XXXEach student in the school has to the exam.

One: an unidentified person
XXXOne should never be rude to policemen.

Both: two people or things, seen together
XXXThe cars were red and blue and both were Porsches.

Few: a small number of people or things
XXXMany people are millionaires, but few are billionaires.

Several: more than two but not many
XXXMany of the students in the school were infected, and several had to be hospitalized

 

For more information about pronouns and their use take a look at

The Basics of English Grammar

Other links for Pronouns
Types of Pronouns
Subject and Object Pronouns
Definition of Pronoun

An explanation of pronouns and the types of pronouns– www.understandinggrammar.com